New chapter of optics? Flat is the future!

For the first time flat lenses and the principle of their actions heard in the last year. With placed on a flat surface nanostructures of different sizes, they are to be able to model almost any passage of the light, and therefore to obtain effects such as using conventional lenses. Another plus was supposed to be a total lack of visual defects. Then it seemed that before similar technology sees the light of day, it will take a lot of time. It turns out, however, that the flat lenses may visit on the market in the coming years. Scientists from Caltech in cooperation with Samsung engineers have developed a similar system of flat, mounted directly on the matrix optical modules whose mass production will not only be easy, but above all, cheap.

So far, the picture provided by similar solutions, however, was strongly blured. Engineers deal with the problem of comparing together two layers of lenses. The output module has a row focal ratio of f / 0.9 and a viewing angle of about 70 ° vertically and horizontally. Another task of the engineers is to adapt solutions for currently used matrices. This, through the use of the same materials and processes as in the case of CMOS sensors, should be simple and cheap. And given the fact that this project was partly financed by Samung, we can expect that the flat lenses will visit soon to smartphones and other mobile devices. In this market may be also considerable revolution. Apart from the fact alone aspect of miniaturization, with the right can us to deliver results previously reserved only for telephoto, which will certainly be eager implemented by the manufacturers of photographic smartphones.

There is already a satellite navigation system Galileo

Galileo is the EU’s global navigation satellite system (GNSS), a civil alternative to the US Global Positioning System (GPS) and Russian GLONASS. Compared with GPS and GLONASS, which is currently used by eg. Smartphones, Galileo will be much more precise thanks to the clocks, measuring the time delay of one second for a few million years. In the version commonly available accuracy of location is to reach 1 meter in commercial – 1 centimeter. The big advantage of Galileo over competing systems is also to be a much stronger signal. It can be received inside the large buildings or in tunnels and rescue operations in the high mountains, where he often disappears GPS signal will become easier. The system starts providing in conjunction with GPS free services, such as supporting rescue operations; provide more accurate navigation; better timing, and secure services to the public sector bodies. We will see how it will works.



Shawyer design resembles a cone. Attached to it is a magnetron, which is simply a lamp similar to those mounted in a microwave oven. Emdrive principle of operation is based precisely on the microwaves and hence the type of electromagnetic radiation of high frequency. The microwaves are emitted into the interior of the cone of the metal so as to bounce between one end. And here begins the stairs. How, moving back and waves in the electromagnetic field, generate momentum?

Imprints its mark here Bernoulli effect, which is derived directly from hydrodynamics. Eighteenth-century mathematician formulated an equation for describing differences in pressure of the liquid flowing through the pipe, which varies in diameter – tapered and extending to different sections. Of course, water flow should be correspondingly greater in the tube with a smaller diameter. But we need him in the reversed version. Shawyer figured that if the electromagnetic radiation has a wave-like, the differences in the diameter of the container will also affect the properties. Getting to one end of the cone is microwave harder than the second. And if so, should be some pressure, overwhelming propel the device in the direction in which the waves hit with greater insistence. And so, emdrive accelerate toward a broader basis.  More about EmDrive soon.



Liquid water on Pluto

Researchers at the University of California and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have discovered evidence that Pluto has a hidden ocean. It is tucked beneath the frozen surface area in the shape of a heart. Region Tombaugh was named in honor of the discoverer of Pluto. It has a diameter of two thousand kilometers, and experts believe that there is as much water as is in the oceans on Earth. Outdoor tank on Pluto, which is likely to be completed by the melted ice, is about 150-200 km beneath the frozen surface of the planet. As stated by Francis Nimmo of the Studies show that the environment on Pluto is more varied than previously thought – said Richard Binzel of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Someone willing to dive?

Minimum wage for everyone let robot work for us

Elon Musk switched concept that can change our approach to the development of technology and artificial intelligence. The billionaire said that since automation will pick people to work, governments should pay any salary worked out by robots. One of the biggest concerns of progressive automation and robotics is the risk of rising unemployment. The World Economic Forum, as we reported in January, conducted a study on the subject. Technological advances may lead to the release of up to 5 million people. He added that thanks to the automation of people will be able to deal with more complex issues. Humanity will have to find a way to shift to a new track. The idea Muska is in line with the ideas promoted by some think tanks. In Finland, the government plans to introduce a universal minimum income of 800 euros. It would be paid to anyone but instead to disappear would have tax deductions and allowances. Already in 2017 the Finns will test your idea. At the beginning of each receive 550 euros, and the system grants will work.

Production Music For Film & Movies Today

In the era of silent film music existed separately, was played live (usually by individual instrumentalists, although prestigious cinemas occurred even symphony orchestras), later reconstructed her gramophone. Today, film music – cleansed of the effects of acoustic and integrated internally – can also work outside the cinema, secondarily. In contrast to the composition of independent music film takes the form of an open, internally relaxed often devoid of a clear beginning and end. This allows you to merge it with other layers of the film work through the efforts of technical: cuts, interruptions; the final shape of the film music is created on the stage of assembly, when the music for the film is transformed into music in the film. During the production of the film music can overtake create an image, or even be the basis for recording and assembly  or the opposite – to form the finished image.


Just like people, robots that work hard to generate a lot of heat. Heat is a by-product, which hinders the functioning of their systems and limits their duration of action. One of the factors that makes the people are such good runners spacer is our ability to sweat. Once the brain senses that the body temperature rose to 37 degrees Celsius, sends a signal to the sweat glands began to produce and release the liquid cools the body. This fluid – sweat evaporates from the skin cools it. Using this mechanism, the researchers from the lab JSK University of Tokyo decided to create a robot that can lower its temperature in a similar manner. Robot team does not have skin, so sweating through his “bones”. The team created these bones, printing them with porous aluminum. The water flows through the channels contained in them, and flows out through the “gland” placed near the engine – of elements which are normally overheated during the loading activity. The machine can operate for about 12 hours, consuming half a glass of water. This system proved to be three times more efficient than conventional air cooling.

New Google Maps now official

Google seems to finally respond to requests from users who have long been pushing for such functions at the same time pointing to the presence of competitive products. Mode “Wi-Fi only” , in accordance with earlier assumptions is an extension of the Map mode Offline. Forces on Google Maps navigation using a map stored beforehand in the memory unit, and a possible update is performed only with the use of wireless networks. In the end, there was also the option to save maps on microSD memory card, and not, as previously, only with the internal memory of the device. Especially will enjoy the fact that owners of smartphones with less extensive space for data. While top devices have up to 64 GB, the budget still meets 8 GB or even less. When you save the map offline, a message will appear with a choice of storage location (internal memory or microSD card). That something new for Google Maps, similar what have Here Maps from beggining of Lumia phones.

1-nanometer transistor

For about a decade, scientists warn that we are approaching the physical limits diminish the basic electronic circuit – the transistor. The laws of physics do not allow for a conventional semiconductor transistor gate length of less than 5 nanometers. It is now widely used gate 20-nanometer, so we are very close to the said frontier. It turns out, however, that not all the laws of physics are an insurmountable barrier. Ali Javey of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is the head of the scientific group that developed a working transistor with a gate length of 1 nanometer. We have built the smallest transistor in history. Gate length defines the size of the transistor. So we built a 1-nanometer transistor, and we have shown that with the right selection of materials we have ample opportunity reduction electronics – said Javey. The key to success was the use of carbon nanotubes and molybdenum disulfide, engine lubricant commonly available in the trade. Achieving team Javeya means that Moore’s law can apply for a long time. Semiconductor industry have long believed that no gate less than 5 nanometers will not work, so not at all considered the construction of such small transistors. Our research shows that the transistors smaller than 5 nanometers should not be rejected in advance. Industry uses silicon to the limit.

Replacing silicon molybdenum disulfide can create transistors with a gate length of just 1 nanometer – says Sujay Desai, a student taking part in work on the transistor. Essential elements of the transistor are the source, drain and gate. The electrons flow from the source to the drain, and the flow is controlled by a gate. Both silicon and MoS2 they are having a crystalline structure, but the electrons flowing through the silicon behave as if they had less weight and encounter less resistance. This advantage is at the gates lengths of 5 nanometers or greater. However, the shorter gates tunneling phenomena occur and the gateway is able to prevent electrons before flowing from the source to the drain. This means that you can not turn off the transistor and control the electrons – says Desai. As the electrons flowing through MoS2 are “heavier”, their movement can be controlled by smaller goals. Furthermore, MoS2 can be produced in like sheets having a thickness of only 0.65 nm, with a lower dielectric constant, which is indicative of the ability of a material to store energy in the form of an electric field. Both of these properties, the weight of the electron allow a better control of electron flow even when the gate length is only 1 nanometer. Scientists once you have decided to use molybdenum disulphide in place of the silicon they had to build the gate. Modern lithographic techniques do not work well in such a small scale, and therefore uses carbon nanotubes with a diameter of 1 nanometer. In this way, a new transistor, and experiments have shown that it can effectively control the flow of electrons. Ali Javey stresses that so far created only a single prototype. We do not put more of our transistors on a chip and put there billions of such devices.

We did not create a production process that would allow a reduction in parasitic resistance of the device. However, our work has shown that we are no longer limited 5-nanometer gate. Moore’s Law will apply a bit longer.

Curiosity rover made another Martian selfie

NASA rover Curiosity Mars completed research area called “Murray Buttes” and now moving in even higher regions of Aeolis Mons (Mount Sharp). The vehicle took this opportunity to take another selfie proud against the landscape of the Red Planet. Photography, which was made September 17, 2016 year actually consists of up to 60 images captured by the camera MAHLI (Mars Hand Lens Imager) rover. The camera arm and the vehicle has not been included in this composite – so it would seem that for a photograph corresponds to … a resident of Mars.