For about a decade, scientists warn that we are approaching the physical limits diminish the basic electronic circuit – the transistor. The laws of physics do not allow for a conventional semiconductor transistor gate length of less than 5 nanometers. It is now widely used gate 20-nanometer, so we are very close to the said frontier. It turns out, however, that not all the laws of physics are an insurmountable barrier. Ali Javey of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is the head of the scientific group that developed a working transistor with a gate length of 1 nanometer. We have built the smallest transistor in history. Gate length defines the size of the transistor. So we built a 1-nanometer transistor, and we have shown that with the right selection of materials we have ample opportunity reduction electronics – said Javey. The key to success was the use of carbon nanotubes and molybdenum disulfide, engine lubricant commonly available in the trade. Achieving team Javeya means that Moore’s law can apply for a long time. Semiconductor industry have long believed that no gate less than 5 nanometers will not work, so not at all considered the construction of such small transistors. Our research shows that the transistors smaller than 5 nanometers should not be rejected in advance. Industry uses silicon to the limit.
Replacing silicon molybdenum disulfide can create transistors with a gate length of just 1 nanometer – says Sujay Desai, a student taking part in work on the transistor. Essential elements of the transistor are the source, drain and gate. The electrons flow from the source to the drain, and the flow is controlled by a gate. Both silicon and MoS2 they are having a crystalline structure, but the electrons flowing through the silicon behave as if they had less weight and encounter less resistance. This advantage is at the gates lengths of 5 nanometers or greater. However, the shorter gates tunneling phenomena occur and the gateway is able to prevent electrons before flowing from the source to the drain. This means that you can not turn off the transistor and control the electrons – says Desai. As the electrons flowing through MoS2 are “heavier”, their movement can be controlled by smaller goals. Furthermore, MoS2 can be produced in like sheets having a thickness of only 0.65 nm, with a lower dielectric constant, which is indicative of the ability of a material to store energy in the form of an electric field. Both of these properties, the weight of the electron allow a better control of electron flow even when the gate length is only 1 nanometer. Scientists once you have decided to use molybdenum disulphide in place of the silicon they had to build the gate. Modern lithographic techniques do not work well in such a small scale, and therefore uses carbon nanotubes with a diameter of 1 nanometer. In this way, a new transistor, and experiments have shown that it can effectively control the flow of electrons. Ali Javey stresses that so far created only a single prototype. We do not put more of our transistors on a chip and put there billions of such devices.
We did not create a production process that would allow a reduction in parasitic resistance of the device. However, our work has shown that we are no longer limited 5-nanometer gate. Moore’s Law will apply a bit longer.