Future of Blockchain

Blockchain is one of the hottest technological topics on how to use the block chain concept to work with both large banks and thousands of startups. Blockchain is commonly associated with the cryopreserved bitcoin. Thanks to it, it was the first time in practice to test the effectiveness of an idea that has its roots in concepts developed by cryptography specialists since the 1970s. Regardless of how effective bitcoin is evaluated as a payment tool and a specific type of money, say that the underlying transaction register has passed the exam – it ensures the safe functioning of the scheme, which is without the entity acting as the clearing center.

The Bitcoin Blockchain is a transaction log that records the assignment of cryptanalysts to individual addresses (user accounts, “wallets”), issuing them, generating new units, and transaction fees. The basic registry unit is the so-called. block. It contains a set of transaction data executed since the previous block was generated. It can be imagined as a “portion” of data. Each block contains a unique hash. This tag is calculated based on all transactions that have entered the block, as well as the tag of the previous block in history. This creates a chain – each block refers to its predecessor.

As usual, a new technology with revolutionary potential raises extreme reactions. Enthusiasts see possible applications in almost every kind of human activity. To put it bluntly, blockchain would handle both the problem of drinking water shortage in Africa and cybercrime, and the decentralization of access to information would completely change the modern society. Skeptics point out that the chain of blocks is little more than just a new way of mapping data, in many cases less effective than existing solutions. In addition, it requires the right environment – the blockchain itself will not deprive the work of notaries or realtors, just as bitcoin did not make the central banks disappear from the surface.

One can argue that one and the other are right. Today’s blockchain-based schemes are just the beginning – they can be compared with the first databases of the 1960s. If the history of the block chain’s predecessor would be repeated, then the rapid development of further refined DLT variants and accompanying tools awaits us. For now we are witnessing the stage of experiments, which will probably emerge at least some promising new ideas.

New retro gaming console that teaches programming

So far Pip is in the phase of the Kickstarter campaign, however, that the uprising is already almost certain. The company responsible for the product collected more than half of the funds in just a few days. The mission of the company is to engage children in retro games through a special platform that teaches programming. Curiosity because it is called this platform, is placed on the manufacturer’s website. Pip is not only programming and playing with console electronics, it has a dedicated port that allows practically any experiment with connecting various controllers, including bananas.

But what will make the kids want to learn Pip?

As they say, the developers are convinced they have a console format, and compatibility with the cheapest electronic components available in every electronics store, the Raspberry Pi HAT ecosystem, and that the console uses standard and common programming languages, including a block based system and get started without writing code.

Elon Musk & Mars rocket

While many point out that Martian’s Musk odyssey is time-stamped, and we do not have much to expect in 2020, the eccentric billionaire will put his capsule on the surface of the Red Planet, it does not mean that the creator of PayPala is forgiving at least a dream of colonization. Mars. What is most important in Falcon Heavy is its ability to be re-used. The ability to bring down Falcon missiles back to Earth for use over the years is also used in this case. This is of immense importance for the entire plan of the colonization of Mars.

Google wants to have own “Discover”

Apple has own News, Instagram, Facebook – Instant Articles, and the Discover Snapchat platform, so rumors that Google wants to launch its own short message delivery tool from publishers do not seem overdone.

Stamp, according to reports. Reuters aims to enable publishers to publish content and reach readers quickly, with focus on mobile channels and AMP (fast-loading pages). The Wall Street Journal adds that the information available on the Stamp will take the form of slides with text, pictures and video.

Google has already begun talks From CNN, The Washington Post, Time, and Vox Mediaamp, but the details of possible cooperation are unknown. Google declined to provide details, but reported that we will learn more in the next few days.

Google plans, which with the publisher platform, is starting late enough, however, should bother competitors. Unlike them, Google has the ability to promote its solution, such as search results, while its rivals require a dedicated application.

Artificial Intelligence Google has learned how to successfully overcome obstacle course

So-called reinforcement learning is a technique of training artificial intelligence, where the algorithm is rewarded for making correct decisions and being punished for making wrong decisions based on the results obtained earlier. According to this idea, with the right amount of time and effort, the system finally sets itself the best course of action for itself. For some time it has been a common practice in training artificial intelligence. She recently used Google’s DeepMind, for example. With her help she taught artificial intelligence how to successfully overcome obstacle course.

It is clear that the artificial intelligence from DeepMind uses creative solutions to overcome the obstacles that are on its way. However, it is worth noting that most of the time these solutions do not look natural, although they provide the best results. This shows how potential future artificial intelligence can be – since robots in terms of mobility will not necessarily be as limited as humans.

The Uranus planet is even more weird than was thought

It is impossible to hide that Uranus is a planet enough strange. The axis of rotation of this planet is strongly inclined – up to 98 degrees, and is located almost in the plane of its orbit.  A new study by Atlanta-based Georgia Institute of Technology suggests that Uranus’s peculiar axis of rotation may be responsible for another strange feature of this planet. Uranus magnetosphere – the magnetic field that surrounds it – “turns on and off” every day as it rotates with the planet.

The magnetic field of the Earth is quite regular and stretches between the north and south poles. Because Uranus is a “drunken planet”, its magnetosphere is much more chaotic and the magnetic field’s dipole axis is inclined at an angle of 60 degrees to the axis of rotation of the planet. Because of this, the magnetosphere is sometimes “open” and sometimes “closed,” depending on its orientation. Researchers have been able to simulate the Uranus magnetosphere and discover some of its secrets using numerical models based on data collected by Voyager 2.

NASA has discovered 10 new candidates for earth-like planets

Kepler Space Telescope again does not disappoint. On Monday, during a press conference at the Joseph Ames Research Center, NASA announced the discovery of 219 new candidates for the planet. Even more exciting is the fact that 10 of them seem to resemble Earth in size and be in the ecosphere of their stars. This means that on their surface there may be water, and consequently, life.

In total, the Kepler Space Telescope identified 4034 candidates for the planet, of which 2335 were officially recognized as exoplanets. The telescope found them, observing as many as 200,000 stars. About 50 of the observed planets resemble Earth.

Mutations in space

During experiments conducted with the use of flatworms at the International Space Station, the researchers observed an unexpected regenerative effect. One of the 15 fragments of the creature sent back into space has returned with two heads. The purpose of the experiment was to test how life in space can affect cell activity. Researchers have decided to do so in microgravity and fluctuations in the magnetic field by sending a group of flatworms to the International Space Station (ISS).

They are closely related to the tapeworm, but are not parasites. They belong to the rotor class and reach a length of up to 20 mm. Their regenerative capabilities have long fascinated scientists. As soon as the conditions are right, these worms can rebuild damaged or even half-body parts. In this way two individuals with the same genetic material are born. Worms can regenerate every piece of their body by the pluripotent stem cells present in their body.

Researchers have sent a set of whole and healthy flat worms to the ISS and amputated fragments of their bodies, from which new individuals would appear in the earth. Scientists sealed worms inside tubes with different ratios of air and water and then watched the animals.

At first glance these little worms do not have much in common with the astronauts on board the ISS. But the experience at ISS offers valuable tips on how life in space can affect the body. This can help scientists understand the impact of space travel on human bodies.

Source: Live Science, photo by Junji Morokuma / Allen Discovery Center at Tufts University

NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Arizona

NASA Can’t Explain What Made This Strange, Deep Hole on Mars

You’d think NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has seen everything there is to see on the Martian surface in the 11 years it’s orbited our nearest neighbour, but a snapshot taken over the planet’s South Pole has revealed something we can’t explain.

While the planet’s entire surface is pocked with various depressions and craters, a vast pit spotted among the “Swiss cheese terrain” of melting frozen carbon dioxide appears to be a bit deeper than your average hole, leaving astronomers to try and figure out what made it.

A lot of things can make holes in Mars’ rocky terrain: more than half a million meteorite impacts have left craters; collapsing lava tubes have created deep pits; ancient floods have gouged out giant chasms; and volcanic activity has melted ice to leave funnels.

Occasionally the MRO will come across an odd feature that poses a fun mystery to solve, such as this shallow, circular depression seen earlier this year.

But there’s nothing so shallow about this newly discovered pit. Just take a look at it:

PIA21636 hires NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Arizona

Being summer for Mars’ South Pole, the Sun is low enough in the sky to accentuate shadows over the landscape, making subtle features pop right out. Yet there a glint of light is still able to reveal ice at the bottom of the hole.

Surrounding the pit are patches frozen carbon dioxide. The circles in the ice is thought to where the dry ice has sublimated into gas in the summer sunshine, leaving what astronomers call “Swiss Cheese terrain“.

The image was taken using the MRO’s High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment, or HiRISE camera, which allows researchers to see objects on Mars that are larger than one metre (about 3 feet) in size from about 200 to 400 kilometres (about 125 to 250 miles) above.

That means the pit isn’t tiny – at 50 centimetres (19.7 inches) per pixel, we’re looking at a feature hundreds of metres across. Take a look on NASA’s website for a hi-res version of the image.

So the question is, did something punch its way through, or is it a collapse of some sort?

Without more information, it’s hard to tell, but no doubt NASA will be discussing all of the possibilities.

The MRO has been in Martian orbit since March, 2006, sending back detailed images of the Red Planet’s surface that reveal a dynamic environment where dust devils roam, sand dunes crawl, and occasional bits of Earthling tech are left to gather dust.

After completing all of its primary goals in the first two years, and two mission extensions, the orbiter is still going strong – we’ll almost certainly be seeing more odd holes like this in the future.

MIKE MCRAE
sciencealert.com
5 JUN 2017

Scientists have created the illusion of touch in VR

Today, the equipment that allows us to enter the world of VR, affects only two of our senses – sight and hearing. Perhaps, using such devices someday we will be able to feel the flavors and smells, but rather will not happen until the virtual reality does not begin to simulate touch. Finally, the simulation of this sense seems to be another logical step for the VR. The question is how will it be implemented?

Researchers at the Hasso Plattner Institute in Potsdam have developed a device that uses neuromuscular stimulation (EMS) to simulate the feel of touching walls and other objects in virtual reality. At the moment we are dealing with his rather crude version, because the device is a backpack containing 8-channel muscle stimulator from which the wires and electrodes are discharged.

The device sends small electric impulses to create the feel of touching the object. Of course, at the moment, the device is definitely not a “small amount of hardware”, so it is therefore not ready for commercial use. Let us hope, however, that this will soon…